Training to Walk a Marathon

Patti Finke, M.S. Co-director Portland Marathon Clinic & Portland Marathon Walk Clinic
So, you are ready to challenge the marathon! Why is the marathon so appealing and yet so scary? All marathons are 26.2 mile or 42 kilometers; that's a long way to walk and you'll be on your feet a lot longer than ever before. It's a great challenge and if you accomplish it, you'll know why so many marathoners think they are invincible. There is nothing like the feeling of accomplishment one gets from finishing their first marathon. One of the reasons I love coaching marathoners is so that I can vicariously relive that feeling from their accomplishments and comments.

What are the secrets to successful training? Training is about change; the change you want to make is for your body to be able to go 26.2 miles. So first, you need to try to get your body to adapt to long distances. You do that by a gradual system of overload. Overload is the principle of training that is gradually applying greater stresses to the body to allow it to adapt to achieve your goal. In this case, the goal is to get your body to be used to being on your feet for about the same period of time it will take to walk the marathon. If you look at the training programs shown, note that the adaptation is slow. I have found that walkers can add about 10% per week to their mileage and stay healthy. For the adaptation to be successful; it needs to be followed by a rest or recovery period for the body to make the changes. The schedule follows what is called the hard/easy system of training. This system is used by athletes in almost every sport to get the maximum training gain with the least risk.

What are the risks of training for a marathon? I have been coaching marathoners for over 15 years, both runners and walkers, and have seen high potential for injury with the event, not the particular sport. The injuries are both physical and psychological. The hard/easy system helps keep the body and the head from overdoing by allowing adequate rest between hard workouts. Good shoes are another prerequisite for a healthy walker. Most of my marathon walkers are training in running shoes because the technology tends to be better for the biomechanics of longer distance walking. The program needs to include some stretching and other strengthening( weights) as well.

The schedules shown here are for a fairly short period (3 months). They assume most walkers have an adequate mileage base of at least 20 miles a week and have been walking regularly for at least 6 months. There are three sets based on the current fitness level of the participant. The beginner schedule assumes that the walker is doing a couple of days of other exercise as well as the walking. This brings us to the second principle of training, specificity. This means that to walk a long distance you need to train by walking long distances. You cannot swim for hours and hope to walk a marathon, you need to train specific muscle and physiological fitness. You will walk a faster and more comfortable marathon if you can walk at least 5 days per week. Some bodies and heads will not allow that and need to do other forms of exercise such as cycling or aerobics a couple of days per week.

One of the most important changes you need to make is for the body to be able to have enough fuel to cover the distance. Whether you walk or run, it takes about 2600 calories to finish the marathon. Calories come from two major sources carbohydrates and fats. Your body can store about 2400 - 2500 calories of carbohydrates with the liver, blood and muscle storage sites. It can only utilize 40 - 60 % of those, leaving an energy deficit if carbohydrates were the only source of fuel. The good news is that everyone has adequate fat stores to fuel for distances far beyond the marathon. (I'm certain you can locate those stores in your own body). The trick is for the body to be able to access those stores and to be able to continue to use them throughout the marathon. For fat to be burned for fuel, there needs to be carbohydrates available as well. I'm certain you've heard the expression "hitting the wall". The "wall" happens when the body burns off its available carbohydrates and cannot use the fats with the consequence that pace slows dramatically as pain increases. The"wall" can be prevented by training the body to do 2 things: store more carbo's and utilize more fat. Those are both gained by long slow walking.

What does slow mean in terms of training? Resist the current temptation to do every walk at marathon pace. The body skips the physiologic steps needed to learn the fat burning and the "wall" will spring up during the marathon somewhere after about 18 miles. The long walks should be 1 - 2 minutes per mile slower than the projected marathon pace. How do you find your projected marathon pace? From tests of walkers in the marathon clinics, we have found you can make a prediction from a timed one mile walk test. Warm up, walk an accurately measured mile (IE on a track), check your heart rate at the end. Most of the clinic walkers completed the marathon 2 minutes per mile slower than the test. Those that trained 1 - 2 minutes per mile slower than that on their long walks felt much better both on their long walks and during the marathon.

How do you go from slow to marathon pace? The T's listed on the schedule are tempo walks or walks at projected marathon pace. These are important so that you know exactly how marathon pace feels and can start out there. You need to not get carried away at the start and go out too fast. The walks need to be at marathon pace not faster, You can all walk paces faster than the one your marathon will be;. so speed is not an issue in training. You need to be efficent and practice the pace that will take you 26 miles. The magic of motor learning is that you only need to do a little to get it.

Notice that last couple of weeks show a period of rest before the marathon. That is called taper and is important so that you are rested and recharged for the marathon. The last part of the taper is carbohydrate loading to make certain the muscles are filled with the highest possible amount of carbohydrate. Some rest is need to allow that to happen.

                          WALK MARATHON 
                        TRAINING SCHEDULES
                       (distances in miles)

Basic Beginning

Week           S    M    T    W    T    F    S         Total 

1              10   0    0    6    0    6    0         22

2              12   0    0    6    0    6    0         24

3              14   0    0    6    0    6    0         26

4              14   0    0    7    0    7    0         28

5              16   0    0    7    0    7    0         30

6              16   0    0    7    0    7    0         30

7              18   0    0  7(2T)  0    7    0         32

8              20   0    0  7(3T)  0    7    0         34

9              16   0    0  8(4T)  0    8    0         32

10             20   0    0  8(4T)  0    8    0         36

11             16   0    0  8(4T)  0    8    0         32

12             10   0    0  4(2T)  0    2    0         16

13             Marathon


Intermediate

Week           S    M    T    W    T    F    S         Total 

1              12   0    3    6    3    6    0         30

2              14   0    3    6    3    6    0         32

3              14   0    3    7    3    7    0         34

4              16   0    3    7    3    7    0         36

5              16   0    3    8    3    8    0         38

6              18   0    3    8    3    8    0         40

7              18   0    4  8(2T)  4    8    0         42

8              20   0    4  8(3T)  4    8    0         44

9              20   0    4  8(4T)  4    8    0         44

10             16   0    4  8(5T)  4    8    0         40

11             20   0    4  8(6T)  4    8    0         44

12             10   0    2  4(2T)  2    2    0         16

13             Marathon



Advanced

Week           S    M    T    W    T    F    S         Total 

1              14   0    3    6    3    6    3         35

2              16   0    3    6    3    6    3         37

3              16   0    3    7    3    7    3         39

4              18   0    3    7    3    7    3         41

5              18   0    3    8    3    8    3         43

6              20   0    3    8    3    8    3         45

7              16   0    4  8(4T)  4    8    4         44

8              20   0    4  8(4T)  4    8    4         48

9              16   0    4  8(5T)  4    8    4         44

10             20   0    4  8(5T)  4    8    4         48

11             16   0    4  8(6T)  4    8    4         44

12             10   0    2  4(2T)  2    2    0         16

13             Marathon

(nT) = Tempo walks where n = equals number of miles walked at marathon pace. example 8 (4T) = 2 mile warm up, 4 miles a marathon pace, 2 mile cool down

All other walk from 1-2 minutes per mile slower than marathon pace


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